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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make Sure You Get The Perfect Rocking Chair

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603

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Fascinated in rocking chairs? Always wanted to have one? Then read on. Benjamin Franklin is popularly credited for inventing the rocking chair, but there is no real historical fact to support this. What was only determined is that he was the proud owner of a rocking chair that appeared in the Colonies 250 years ago. During the early 19the century, chairs were altered by shortening the legs a bit and sawing a slot into each foot to where the rockers are to be put in place. The…


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Fascinated in rocking chairs? Always wanted to have one? Then read on. Benjamin Franklin is popularly credited for inventing the rocking chair, but there is no real historical fact to support this. What was only determined is that he was the proud owner of a rocking chair that appeared in the Colonies 250 years ago. During the early 19the century, chairs were altered by shortening the legs a bit and sawing a slot into each foot to where the rockers are to be put in place. The reason for this was converting an ordinary chair into a rocker was easy and more economical than having one made from scratch. Altering a chair went for as low as 50 cents while having one made could cost up to 3.50 dollars.

1. Modern Rocking Chairs

Since Franklin s time, the popularity of the rocking chair has hardly waned. In fact it has become even more popular. The reason for this are many. For one sitting in rocking are believed by some to be therapeutic. Many individuals have sworn that merely sitting in a rocking chair for several minutes can take away some bodily pains. Rocking chairs are also ideal for performing some seated tasks like nursing, knitting, sewing, etc. Early rocking chairs are mostly used in rural homes because they were deemed too plain for the formal parlor and rough on expensive carpets of most urban homes. Not long after, rocking designs have evolved to embrace modern styles. Rockers become the seat of choice and often offered to guest as it display lavish decorations and are upholstered for comfort.

2. Most Popular Styles:

– Windsor
– Ladder-back
– Shaker
– Boston
– Victorian
– Bentwood
– Wicker.

3. Modern Styles

Today, you can find rocking chairs that are made of chrome, molded plastic and laminated cardboard. There are also rocking chairs in graceful ladder-back and woven-back designs in walnut, cherry, maple, oak, and hickory.

4. How To Choose A Rocking Chair

Choose a rocking chair that will withstand the rigors of rocking. Such chairs are made from handpicked logs that are not twisted and sawn into short sections along its grains. This is to ensure that the wood is strong and is less likely to get distorted over time. You should also make sure that the joints are tight. Good rocking chairs are made by cutting tenons and mortises to hairline tolerances and using specialized sawing techniques for each component to minimize differences in expansion and contraction when the parts are joined. This is important because every part of a rocking chair moves together. Look for one with runners cut with bandsaw and mounted so that the center point of the radius is right in front of the user s chin. This ensures a smooth and balanced rocking experience.

5. Don’t Skimp on Quality

Prices of rocking chairs ranges from reasonable to very expensive. Rocking chairs usually stay in the family that bought them. They have more heirloom than market values and don t sell well at auctions. If you want a chair with very high level of craftsmanship then be ready so shell out between $1,000 to $3,000. Some contemporary handmade rockers can fetch tens of thousands of dollars. Of course, quality rocking chairs can also be bought for much less. A few hundred dollars will get you a fine hardwood antique. That’s a pretty good deal for a vintage piece of Yankee ingenuity. Here s a tip in buying a rocking chair: try out the rocking chair before buying it. Have the store clerk set up the rocking chair in the store. Make sure that the rocking chair is comfortable to sit in and that the table itself is durable.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make Soundproofing A Part Of Today s Home Improvement

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546

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Want a simple behind the scenes way to increase the comfort and value of your home? Soundproofing may sound like something only professional recording artists need, but you will be surprised at how much you will enjoy the added quiet that soundproofing supplies to your home environment.

There are many areas where soundproofing can be added in order to make for a quieter space. Sometimes it the outside disturbances of traffic or barking dogs that you would like to block out…


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Want a simple behind the scenes way to increase the comfort and value of your home? Soundproofing may sound like something only professional recording artists need, but you will be surprised at how much you will enjoy the added quiet that soundproofing supplies to your home environment.

There are many areas where soundproofing can be added in order to make for a quieter space. Sometimes it the outside disturbances of traffic or barking dogs that you would like to block out. Other times, you may want to keep noises from one room inside your home from seeping into other areas. Depending on the way you want to manage and control sound, there is a soundproofing technique that will meet your needs.

Keeping Noise Out

One of the most effective ways to keep street noise from entering your home is to soundproof your windows. Normal windows are given a sound blocking rating on a numerical scale. The percentage of noise that soundproof windows can block out increases substantially with these special windows.

The best part of the whole process is that it is easy. When you add soundproof windows to your home it will look just the same as the old windows. In fact, the old windows remain in place and the extra glass barrier is added to them. Windows will still open and close in the same manner too, but the panel of glass and the air pocket created by the double pane greatly reduces noise.

Sound proof windows differ from just plain double pane storm windows. The greatest effect is in the amount of space between the two panels of glass. It is just the right amount to trPDD1 unwanted noise, and it has the added benefit of staying clean inside because of the air block seal.

Keeping Sound In

Another area where soundproofing may be wanted is in a home theatre. If you want to keep the sound from the stereo system from getting distorted or disturbing others around the house, then there are sound proof panels that can be added to the room. These panels are usually made of foam, resembling an egg crate, but other materials are being made and tested every day. These look more like decorative panelling, yet offer the same noise control.

Ceilings and floors can help prevent the escape of noise between rooms. By adding insulation, similar to that which keeps the cold out in the winter and the heat in, you can reduce noise in and out of the room.

Soundproofing – Doing It Yourself

If you are good the DYI projects, then soundproof is one you can tackle. It is best to leave the windows to the professional installers, but during any renovation of your house, you should consider sound proofing as important a decoration as the carpet or wallpaper. When you need to repair drywall for example, consider adding the insulation that will reduce noise. After all, no one wants to be enjoying lunch in the kitchen or on the patio and have to listen to a teen s stereo from the bedroom! Soundproofing may not be something you would have missed until you have it once. Then you will be thinking about it anytime a noise gets in the way of your peace and quiet.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make it Start with a Door Switch Dishwasher Repair

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815

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You wouldn’t even know your dishwasher had one until it isn t working. These little switches are tucked inside the control panel of your dishwasher and most times are a part of the door latch. The door latch pulls the door securely to the main body of your dishwasher and prevents water from leaking during a cycle. If your dishwasher doesn’t start, it could be due to a faulty door switch.


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You wouldn’t even know your dishwasher had one until it isn t working. These little switches are tucked inside the control panel of your dishwasher and most times are a part of the door latch. The door latch pulls the door securely to the main body of your dishwasher and prevents water from leaking during a cycle. If your dishwasher doesn’t start, it could be due to a faulty door switch.

How the door switch works

When the dishwasher door is open, the switch is off. Inside your dishwasher tub will be a metal or plastic prong. Close and latch the door. The prong will depress the door switch completely and the circuit will close allowing the dishwasher to start. Check the prong to make sure it’s not loose or bent and it’s properly activating the door switch.

It is important to disconnect the dishwasher from its power source before attempting any repair. You can unplug the dishwasher from the outlet, remove the fuse from your fuse box, or flick the breaker switch on your circuit panel. This will prevent you from getting an electric shock.

What a door switch looks like and where it’s located

Typically a dishwasher door switch is an inch long. It can be black or red and has metal prongs called terminals protruding from the body. Some door switches have two terminals and some have three.

The terminals can be a common terminal (COM), normally closed terminal (NC) or a normally open terminal (NO). Switches with only two terminals will either have a COM and a NO, or a COM and an NC. Door switches with three terminals have COM, NC, and a NO.

Your dishwasher’s door switch will be behind the control panel on the front of the unit. It may be necessary to remove the inner panel of the door first. You can do this by removing a few screws. The screws at the bottom of the door are for the hinges. You do not need to remove the whole door for this repair.

Once the inner panel is removed you may find another smaller panel covering the back of the control panel held in place with screws or clips. By removing this panel you will gain access to the latch assembly housing the door switch.

How to remove the switch

Carefully use needle nose pliers to pull the wires leading from the harness off the terminals. For door switches that have a locking clip, depress the lever as you gently pull the harness away from the terminal.

Take your time while removing switches that are a part of the latch assembly or that have a bracket. If you rush and break the switch’s housing you will end up having to replace more parts.

How to test your door switch

Use an ohmmeter to test the switch for continuity. This test is for door switches with three terminals.

1. Set your ohmmeter to measure resistance at a scale of Rx1.

2. Touch the metal tips of the test leads together and zero your ohmmeter by adjusting the thumbwheel in the front of the meter until the needles reads “0” on the scale.

3. Touch one meter lead to the COM terminal and the other lead to the NO terminal. Do not push in on the actuator.

4. Your meter should give a reading of infinity, meaning the circuit is open, and there is no continuity.

5. Without moving the meter’s leads, press down on the actuator until you hear a ‘click’.

6. With the ‘click’ of the actuator, the meter should produce a resistance reading of zero ohms. This means the circuit is closed and continuity is present. (You will only hear this click with a door switch with three terminals.)

7. Keep the meter lead that is touching the COM terminal in place, but move the other meter lead from the NO terminal to the NC terminal.

8. When the actuator is released, you should receive a resistance reading of zero ohms.

9. Now set your ohmmeter to its highest resistance scale and touch one meter lead to the NO terminal and the other meter lead to the NC terminal.

10. The resistance reading between these two leads should be infinite.

11. Finally take a resistance reading from both the NC terminal and the NO terminal to any metal mounting hardware that is a part of the switch assembly. You should receive a normal reading of infinity.

Any readings that differ from the tests above are signs of a defective door switch that will need to be replaced.

Replace the old switch with a new one, using the same process as explained above. Reassemble the inner door panel and reconnect your dishwasher to its power supply. Don’t forget to replace your fuse or turn the breaker switch back on. Run your dishwasher through a cycle to make sure it’s working properly.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make Homes More Energy Efficient While Remodeling

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362

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According to the National Association of Homebuilders, Americans spend approximately $215 billion remodeling their homes in 2005. So if you’re planning to renovate, you may want to remember one point: It can pay to make your home more energy efficient while you remodel.


Make Homes More Energy Efficient While Remodeling

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According to the National Association of Homebuilders, Americans spent approximately $215 billion remodeling their homes in 2005. So if you’re planning to renovate, you may want to remember one point: It can pay to make your home more energy efficient while you remodel.

“Homeowners are putting extra emphasis on energy cost savings when remodeling their homes,” explains Danny Lipford, homebuilding expert and host of the television show “Today’s Homeowner with Danny Lipford.” “Projects that provide more energy efficiency have proven to help reduce heating and cooling costs, in some cases by up to 15 percent.”

Lipford says that homeowners would be wise to seek every possible way to keep their homes energy efficient and resistant to moisture. He recommends that early in the remodeling process you should ask the contractor plenty of questions. Find out where he thinks you can maximize energy savings, where energy can be lost during a renovation, how to protect against potential weather damage and if he plans to use innovative products such as DuPont Tyvek Weatherization Systems Products that can help save energy while protecting your home.

The three key zones Lipford identifies as those to focus on to cut energy costs are:

ZONE #1: The Attic

Attic insulation can result in significant energy savings, reducing heating and cooling costs by using innovative building materials like DuPont Tyvek AtticWrap. “Some of the most effective solutions that help make homes more efficient are the ones you can’t see and are important to focus on early in the remodeling process,” says Lipford.

ZONE #2: The Walls

During construction, contractors can use a house wrap-such as DuPont Tyvek HomeWrap, which meets ENERGY STAR standards-under the siding. The wrPDD1 protects the house like a windbreaker, forming a protective skin around the walls, doors and windows. Installing house wrPDD1 can help lower heating and cooling costs by keeping outside air and water out while allowing moisture to escape. Without a quality house wrap, homes are more vulnerable to exterior deterioration, air and water infiltration and possibly mold.

ZONE #3: The Windows

Vinyl windows have become one of the most popular choices for superior energy efficiency and moisture management, especially when flashed correctly and installed with insulated glass panels.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make bathing a pleasure

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412

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Bathroom maintenance is an integral part of good housekeeping. For some, bathrooms signify privacy and intimacy. Bathrooms are often decorated with a wide range of accessories. The objective is the same — generate a feeling that bathroom is no different from the rest of the house.


Bathroom acessories

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Bathroom maintenance is an integral part of good housekeeping. For some, bathrooms signify privacy and intimacy. Bathrooms are often decorated with a wide range of accessories. The objective is the same — generate a feeling that bathroom is no different from the rest of the house.

Choosing bathroom accessories may be a difficult task for amateur housekeepers or families that have moved into houses independently for the first time. It is a difficult task since the bathroom might be crowded with a huge number of accessories, eventually reducing the space for the users. So make sure that the bathroom is not cluttered with accessories.

It is recommended that every household employ the services of a professional house decorator to decide what constitutes bathroom accessories. Professional house decorators can also assist in buying accessories. However, if that is not a choice, then purchasing bathroom accessories can be made busy by employing research work.

Most of the stores selling bathroom accessories are registered on the Internet. It is easy to visit any of these sites and check out the accessories. Most of the stores transact business through e-commerce. Create a personal account on the website for easy transaction. Most stores offer this facility of creating accounts on their websites.

Once you are convinced with the product, book it online. The stores will home deliver the product. Payment can be made online using a credit card.

It is always good to do a thorough examination of the products before deciding to purchase them. First decide, whether you really need a particular product. Evaluate its use and then purchase.

Some of the most common bathroom accessories at every home are: Shower curtains, clothe hangars, mats, waste baskets, toilet brushes, levers, shelves, holders, towel ring, shower accessories, bath tub accessories and mirrors. Ensure that there is adequate space in the bathroom for all these accessories.

If the house owner intends to go ahead and create an ambience of great quality in the bathroom, there are many options. However, there should be adequate space to create such an ambience in the bathroom.

The bathroom can be decked up with fashionable and ornamental lighting. Window furnishings and door textiles can be of high quality and colored in various combinations. Uninterrupted fragrance can be flowed in the bathroom using special dispensers. Bathroom can also have indoor ornamental plants.

Bathtubs come in various shapes and color these days. The bathtubs can have flashy and trendy external fittings like taps and shower tubes.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make a Weekly Cleaning Schedule

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766

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Effective guidelines to clean your home


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We all know how easy it is for our week to get away from us. It seems strange because we live in such a highly technical age. Sometimes it feels as if all those toys that are supposed to help us live easier lives have actually taken over the world. Instead of a little more down time, we re constantly being called on our cell phones, beeped, paged, and generally at the mercy of others every hour of every day.

Our regular routines are more difficult than ever to keep. When we re not at work or school, we re driving the kids to events. We also try to schedule a work-out, lunch with a friend, and recreational activities. It s not hard to see where a weekly household cleaning schedule can fall by the wayside. So how do we keep up with that aspect of our lives?

One key is to actually write out a weekly household cleaning schedule. Seeing something in black and white gives us a much better sense of just what needs to be done. Once you list your chores, you can decide if you want to devote an entire day off every week to doing them. You may find that there are some things you can do during the weekday evenings, thus freeing up a little more time to relax.

Floors definitely demand a lot of our attention. After all, there s a floor in every room. Some are carpeted; some may be tile, marble, or linoleum; while others might be hardwood floors with area rugs lying on top. Chances are you use a variety of tools and products to clean them. Most likely you vacuum carpets and rugs. For the wooden floors you would use mops with hardwood floor cleaners. Hopefully you use earth friendly floor cleaner on hard surfaced floors.

Cleaning Your Floors

Most of us feel a lot better about the whole house when all the floors are clean. There s something really unpleasant about looking down and seeing dirt, stains, and piles of objects that aren t in their normal place. In terms of our weekly household cleaning schedule, floors can take up a fair amount of time.

As with anything else, keeping up with problems as they happen, is an important factor. For instance, if you spill something on your tile flooring, grab your earth friendly floor cleaner right away and clean it up. If your pets shed regularly on your carpet, vacuum every couple of days instead of waiting until your weekly household cleaning schedule tells you it s time. As with most things, preventative maintenance and prompt action can be big time savers.

Wood floors are beautiful and always add a special something to the appearance of a room. Just as with your carpeting, they don t require a huge amount of work if you stay on top of the job. Usually, you can do them when you do the rest of your weekly household cleaning schedule; or maybe you ve elected to do all of your floors on a certain day or night. Generally using mops and hardwood floor cleaners will do the job.

Fortunately, one of the things technology has done for us is to make our weekly household cleaning schedule easier. For instance when it comes to floor care, you can often do it in one step. In times gone by we d have to wash the floor, often on hands and knees and then follow up with a wax or polish. It s also great to know that research and developers are creating more in the line of earth friendly floor cleaners.

Kitchen and bathroom floors often take the brunt of the abuse in our homes. It s usually better to work on them more often than our weekly household cleaning schedule dictates. When we cook, we often spill food and drink, as well as splash water around while we re scrubbing vegetables or washing our hands. In the bathroom, hair spray and other products go with gravity and head for the floor. These rooms are ideal for combined cleaner/ polisher. Many homes use hardwood flooring or look-alike tile in which case mops with hardwood floor cleaners are appropriate.

Regardless of the flooring combinations in your home, you want to save time and make all the chores as easy as possible. You already have plenty to do on your weekly household cleaning schedule, so plan for it to go as smoothly as possible.

Whenever you can use earth friendly floor cleaners as well environmentally safe cleaners everywhere that you can.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Make A Platform Bed – More Space In Your Bedroom.

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457

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Bedrooms form the core of the house. Everyone wants to decorate the bedroom very elegantly and nicely so that it looks beautiful and cool. The bed is the center of attraction, but sometimes the small size and lack of space of a bedroom makes it look cluttered and untidy. In this situation platform beds are the best option one can go for.

A platform bed is a bed which consists of a mattress placed on a solid platform raised off the floor by legs or framing. The space below …


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Bedrooms form the core of the house. Everyone wants to decorate the bedroom very elegantly and nicely so that it looks beautiful and cool. The bed is the center of attraction, but sometimes the small size and lack of space of a bedroom makes it look cluttered and untidy. In this situation platform beds are the best option one can go for.

A platform bed is a bed which consists of a mattress placed on a solid platform raised off the floor by legs or framing. The space below the platform bed can be utilized for storage purposes. Platform beds do not have springs.

Types of platform bed:

One can select a platform bed from the two varieties available.

* The wooden platform bed – Wooden platform beds are usually made from oak wood or maple wood. They offer warmth as well as beauty to any type of bedroom decor. They are available in many different sizes like full size, king or queen size, and twin size. Though they are usually designed to support a mattress, they can be changed and customized for use with box springs. Altering the height of the headboard and lowering the size of the slate board allows for this. The wooden platform bed is generally given a Danish oil finish.

* The metal platform bed – Metal platform beds come in many varieties from the contemporary metal platform bed to the traditional ones and they are all available in a variety of colors. The beds have predrilled holes to allow for the adjustment to the height of the bed.

* Special quality steel is used for more strength and durability of the bed. To avoid stripping and over tightening of the bolts a special Allen key is used. Steel cross bars sheets of Masonite are used for support at the side railing.

* DIY beds, from plans and instructions available on the internet

Advantages of platform beds:

1. You can make a platform bed yourself from readily available plans found on the internet

2. They provide a better mattress support area since it does not have a box spring underneath.

3. It increases the storage space and makes the room looks clean and tidy.

4. These beds are very affordable.

5. Allergies to dust can be avoided, as dust does not get collected under the bed.

6. They are portable and comfortable.

To buy a platform bed:

There are many web sites and on line merchants from where you can buy a platform bed. These web sites offer the latest designs for platform beds at very reasonable prices.

They are available in a wide range of prices so its very easy to choose a bed that suits our budget. Alternatively you could make a platform bed, the plans are readily available on the internet

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Major repairs of bathroom unit.

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754

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Bathroom and toilet officially speaking is a bathroom unit. A space it takes makes only 6-8% of the general flat area, but considering its importance it is out of competition.


bathroom, bathroom design, bathroom cupboards, sink, shower

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Bathroom and toilet officially speaking is a bathroom unit. A space it takes makes only 6-8% of the general flat area, but considering its importance it is out of competition. It is possible to imagine an apartment without any room or even without a kitchen (there is no kitchen as such in “studios”, it is joined with the living room), but it is quite impossible to imagine an apartment without a bathroom unit. Major repairs of a bathroom unit is technically quite a difficult task, it is not a joke. You should leave this work only for highly skilled specialists.

At first, if a quality of mounting and finishing works can be checked by anyone (for example, a wall is curved, a window or a door does not close, or tiles are put roughly), then a quality of plumbing mounting, sewage and electrical systems you can’t check.

And secondly, as a result of bad work your neighbours can be flooded, constantly clogged sewage system, short circuit failure in the electric wiring due to the contact with water and other serious problems.

We have already written a lot about floors, ceilings and walls, therefore I will remind you briefly that all the materials must be water proof, and there must be damp proofing on the floor. It is also very important to observe the geometry of your bathroom; otherwise it will be difficult to put tiles and to place sanitary equipment in a right way.

Electric wiring and electrical equipment.

A bathroom and a toilet impose the special requirements on everything that is related to electricity. An electrical equipment, used in a damp room, must have grounding, wiring must be three-wire (phase, zero, ground). Lamps, wall outlets, switches are used with the degree of protection.

Water supply and sewage system.

Steel, copper, metal-polymeric and polypropylene pipes are used for hot and cold water supply. PVC pipes are used for the sewage system. Water is cut off by ball stop valves. If plumbing specialist uses screw-thread connections, it is important not to brick them up in a wall to have an access to them. The welded connections of steel pipes must be grounded to avoid corrosion. It is necessary to put pre-filters on all water-pipes to avoid damages of expensive sanitary equipment. It is better to set filters with drainage, as it facilitates their service.

While connecting towel dryer “childish” error is the wrong supply of hot water.

If sanitary technician says that it is impossible to supply hot water to a towel dryer, trust him and set an electric towel dryer. Sewage-pipes are mounted with a slope of about 5% and if possible avoid corners of 90 degree. I strongly recommend buying all the pipes and sanitary engineering armature only of the known producers and preferably in the specialized shops.

Revisory access holes for the maintenance of plumbing-sewage system must not be too little, otherwise their purpose is lost and in case of some problems it will be necessary to break the walls.

All of these are basic moments of plumbing and sewage system mounting, and in general all of this must be the business of your sanitary technicians.

Let’s discuss ventilation.

It is obligatory to mount drawing ventilation.

What should be considered when buying a ventilator? First of all it is its power, it must correspond to the size of a room, and second it is its noise (measured in decibels). Both descriptions are specified on a ventilator. Sanitary engineering equipment. Here we will discuss mixers, water heaters, ceramic bathroom fittings and etc.

For a shower and a bath pay attention to the models with a thermostat. There are two regulators in them. One regulates a temperature, and another regulates water pressure. To my mind, it is exceptionally convenient.

Pay attention to toilets flushing systems, which are wall mounted, and wall toilet sinks for them.

Electric water heaters. They are divided into running and storage. Running water heaters are smaller, but are more powerful, than storage ones. It can reach 16 kW. Having a lot of other electric devices in an apartment can create heavy load on your electric system.

Whether to have a spa or not – I will not advise anything, because a good bath is a very expensive thing and it’s up to you to decide, whether to pay ?1000-?3000 for it.

I will only tell you, that connection of a spa does not differ from ordinary bath connection.
I hope that these information will help you during repair works, when buying materials and dealing with builders.

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Major Contributing Factors That Affect Indoor Air Quality

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Today, indoor air quality (IAQ) is an important environmental consideration. Because we spend approximately 90 percent of our time indoors, we must do everything possible to improve the air we breathe. During the energy crisis of the ’70s, Americans began to tightly close their workplaces and homes in order to conserve energy resources. Currently, many families have both parents working, with less cleaning time in the home. Ventilation and cleanliness play important parts in …


air conditioners, air conditioning, central air unit

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Today, indoor air quality (IAQ) is an important environmental consideration. Because we spend approximately 90 percent of our time indoors, we must do everything possible to improve the air we breathe. During the energy crisis of the ’70s, Americans began to tightly close their workplaces and homes in order to conserve energy resources. Currently, many families have both parents working, with less cleaning time in the home. Ventilation and cleanliness play important parts in maintaining good air quality; although, the indoor environment is impacted by many factors.

Among the factors that may impact the quality of the indoor air in your home is the air drawn from outside through an air conditioning unit. Other factors may be tobacco smoke, radon, and cooking odors, as well as renovating and redecorating products, such as wallpaper, furniture and cabinetry, carpet, paints, varnishes, particle board, wood finishes, caulking, and adhesives. There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. Additional items include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, and wood. Building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products. Included are products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies. Add central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. Interior products in the home have the potential to impact the indoor air because they emit volatile organic compounds into the air. The quality of indoor air also involves cleaning materials, building materials, ducts transmitting heat and air conditioning, activities in the building, people, pets, and furnishings.

You must look at the whole picture. Cleaning products used in the home, as well as interior furnishings, should be low VOC (volatile organic compounds) emitters, with emissions, sometimes improperly called off-gassing, that dissipate quickly. Scientific studies have demonstrated that new carpet is one of the lowest emitters of VOCs into the indoor environment and that these emissions dissipate very quickly. The low-level VOC emissions and the harmless odor from new carpet dissipate within the first 48 to 72 hours after installation. Carpet has not posed any health problems for millions of users. Carpet is made primarily of the same innocuous materials found in clothing and other everyday fabrics; i.e., polyester, nylon, and olefin fibers, latex (synthetic rubber), and polypropylene (olefin) fabric backing.

There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution.

The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. In some cases, factors such as how old the source is and whether it is properly maintained are significant. For example, an improperly adjusted gas stove can emit significantly more carbon monoxide than one that is properly adjusted.

Some sources, such as building materials, furnishings, and household products like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. Other sources, related to activities carried out in the home, release pollutants intermittently. These include smoking, the use of un-vented or malfunctioning stoves, furnaces, or space heaters, the use of solvents in cleaning and hobby activities, the use of paint strippers in redecorating activities, and the use of cleaning products and pesticides in housekeeping. High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities.

Common Factors That Affect IAQ:

People (exhalation, body odors, diseases)

Activities (work such as cleaning, using correction fluids, carbonless paper, pest control products, and personal activities such as wear fragrances and smoking)

Technology (photocopiers and laser printers)

Furnishings (furniture, draperies, floor coverings)

Finishes (paint, varnish, vinyl wall coverings)

Building materials (caulking compounds, adhesives, wood laminates)

Outdoor Air Quality

Inadequate or contaminated air handling units

Inadequate cleaning practices

Take a close look at this list. If you feel you are suffering from Inadequate Indoor Air Quality, you may find the remedy right here.

Here are some aditional sites that have quality information about air conditioning, a major contributor to better air quality…

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Patios Dublin

PDD1 Main stages of repair works in the apartment.

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1228

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How to begin repair works of the apartment?
The first stage of the repair of old apartments is the destruction and dismantling first of all of the dilapidated walls and partition walls, removing the wall and ceiling coating. This stage is one of the most “dirty” stages of the repair.


decorations, painting, flooring, linen, doors, wiring, installation

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How to begin repair works of the apartment?

The first stage of the repair of old apartments is the destruction and dismantling first of all of the dilapidated walls and partition walls, removing the wall and ceiling coating. This stage is one of the most “dirty” stages of the repair.

One more among the most important and “dusty” works is the window block replacement. It is necessary to do this first of all because dirt and dust will be unallowable during following stages and it is prohibited at all to open windows during painting and wallpaper works (large drops of the temperature and moisture are unallowable). After mounting windows and windowsills it is necessary to pack them immediately in polyethylene film and to cover windowsills in addition by the fiberboard (in order to prevent scratches).

The following stage is wiring. Wiring can be installed in walls or along the floor. Wiring is made inside the pipes to ensure electrical safety and increase reliability. The pipe protects wiring from external damages and allows to replace the wire completely without breaking walls and floor simply by inserting the new wire instead of the old one.

House Painting follows the wiring. The frequent mistake during the simultaneous conducting of such works occurs when workers forget to lay out one of the cables and house painters have already plastered and smoothed out the wall. As a result, additional works are necessary to seal chases on the finished wall. The places of the feed switch and wall outlet location and their number must be thought-out in advance. The scheme of power wiring is usually included into the design project.

Later on the system must be ready to service in case of failures. In addition to the wirings, the telephone cable and the TV cable are laid out. The power cable should not be laid out near the telephone and antenna cables to avoid noise pickup and interference. The most peculiar moment is laying out the TV cable. In order to make two (or three) TV sets in the apartment the second cable is often simply “firmly soldered” in parallel, so the cable resistance is lowered. As a result, the display quality is deteriorated, many programs can’t be received and etc. In order to avoid such situation it is necessary to invite a specialist with special equipment. He will measure the signal level of the each TV-feeder and install TV-amplifiers or TV-filters.

Painting is the most long-term process, that is why it is conducted simultaneously in all premises, if it is possible. Delays are linked with the technology. Each applied layer of the plaster (or filling in finishing) must dry completely before the work will continue.

Works in sanitary arrangements and the kitchen begin simultaneously with house painting. It is better to fulfill so-called “dirty” works in the first place and simultaneously. In accordance with the plan of the sanitary technician location welding, wall chasing and pipe run are conducted. Steam radiator admissions are prepared, taps and brackets are mounted, but radiators are not installed.

Then works in sanitary arrangements are conducted according to the plan. The bath is mounted, then walls are smoothed out and the tile is laid on walls. The following stage is assembling ceiling and laying tiles on the floor. And at last other sanitary devices, mixers and accessories are mounted.

After wiring, installation of rosette plates and terminal boxes the voltage is checked in all point. Ends of wiring are insulated and laid out into rosette plates. Sockets and breakers are not installed during this stage in order to save their surface appearance. The finish puttying of walls is conducted simultaneously. The technologically exact control of drying of the layer of the plaster (filling) is carried out by drymeter. It is a special instrument that measures moisture of the material.

The following stage is the process of fill. Fill can be made with different materials – from usual masonry cement-sand mixture to self-aligning floors. The advantage of the simple mixture is its cheapness, the disadvantage is that such mixture is much harder aligned at the level and the final dry time of such fill is 40 days, only then the next stage of the work with floor can be conducted, i.e. the period is too long. Self-leveling self-aligning floors are much more expensive, but more technological. Aligning occurs almost “automatically” i.e. fluid solution of mixture is poured out, then it runs and you receive the horizontal surface. The final dry time is 15 days i.e. you have significant time economy. The system “warm floor” is installed into the fill. If the so-called “wet processes” are inapplicable the technology of the dry aligning (the fill technology) is used bases for floors with adjustable floor battens are mounted.

After fill door boxes and door are installed. Installation of doors must take into the account thickness of future floor covering. After installation the door can be taken off its hinges and removed until the end of repair or packed into polyethylene film to protect from damages. Simultaneously ceiling can be painted and the tile can be laid in that premises where it was planned. The tile must be laid on the absolutely dry overlay.

Finishing of the floor mounting depends on the planned covering. In most cases (if finish covering is not the tile) fill is covered by bitumen mastic and plywood sheets are laid. They are fixed to the floor by self-tapping screws. One plywood sheet is fixed by 30-50 self-tapping screws to provide the close fixing of plywood and long-term service of the floor without squeak and bulging. The plywood gives the additional heat- and acoustic insulation. After mounting of the plywood is finished, wallpaper for painting can be pasted on walls.

In premises where finish covering of the floor is laminated flooring or parquet hoard, the ordinary wallpapers are pasted (not for painting) in the first place. Then the floor covering is mounted.

If finish covering of the floor is the block parquet, the parquet is laid in the first place, then it is scraped and covered by one layer of lacquer. After this the ordinary wall-papers are pasted and the parquet is covered by the rest layers of lacquer (depending on the quality of the parquet and lacquer). The mentioned consequence is linked only with such scrambling process when the great amount of dust is created. In spite of the fact that good floor grinders are equipped with the vacuum cleaner, the sufficient amount of dust is precipitated on surrounding subjects including walls. Dust is very acerbic and is badly washed off. That is why in order not to damage wallpapers, they are pasted after scrambling and in order the parquet do not absorb the surplus moisture it is covered by the one layer of lacquer before wallpaper pasting.

After this the main works can be considered to be finished. It is left only to install the plinths, decorative elements, breakers and sockets, curtain holders, to hang doors, plant-bands and others.

In conclusion it is necessary to note that the sequence of works was listed in general and can change depending on the definite situation – the number of rooms in premise, your resources, peculiarities of the construction of the multilevel premises. It is based on common sense and every person capable of analysis can independently create such a sequence.