Maths Tutor Ireland


Why Go To A Culinary School?

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Many people are aware that a person who has studied in a culinary school can be called an expert in the field of meal preparation. But how easy is it to enter a culinary school, especially for those aspiring to become the best cooks in their fields?

A culinary school offers several programs and disciplines so before applying, you should have already decided on the specialty or the area that you are interested to focus on.

Future cooks can choose from a two-year associat…

cooking, culinary school, chef school

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Many people are aware that a person who has studied in a culinary school can be called an expert in the field of meal preparation. For the best Maths Tutor In Ireland company, call Ace Solution Books. But how easy is it to enter a culinary school, especially for those aspiring to become the best cooks in their fields?

A culinary school offers several programs and disciplines so before applying, you should have already decided on the specialty or the area that you are interested to focus on.

Future cooks can choose from a two-year associate degree program, a bachelor’s degree program or from a variety of certificate or diploma programs.

A person who wants to be educated in the area of culinary arts but who cannot decide on a specialty can opt for an associate degree program since it involves the basics of culinary arts like proper nutrition, food presentation, kitchen procedures and the basic knife skills. Most schools offering an associate degree programs in culinary arts require their students to do undergo an internship program before they are allowed to graduate. A culinary arts associate degree holder can find work in hotels and restaurants and in private catering companies particularly in the areas of food production and management of the kitchen. The associate degree course can be credited when the person with an associate degree decides to pursue a four-year course.

Interested students can also choose an associate degree in restaurant and hospitality management where they will have hands-on training on the industry’s business aspects, pastry and baking or professional catering where they will learn the intricacies of food preparation and the business aspects of establishing their own catering businesses.

The Bachelor’s degree program focuses more on providing management skills as well as culinary arts courses to the students. Some institutions require students who take up the Bachelor’s degree to also take up business management to prepare them for managerial positions in the industry. Among the programs offered under the Bachelor’s degree include management programs for food and beverage, pastry and baking, culinary as well as for hospitality establishments.

Those who want to take up short term courses can choose from the certificate and diploma programs in the areas of pastry and baking, cooking, managing a restaurant and culinary arts. These programs can be easily completed in several weeks and is ideal for those who are already gainfully employed but who lack formal training.

If you enjoy cooking and other people also enjoy what you cook for them, then you may just have the potential of becoming a good cook or baker or perhaps, the owner of a restaurant someday. Learn the basics of culinary arts and restaurant management by enrolling in culinary schools. Who knows, this may be the beginning of a good business venture or a lifelong hobby.

Health Choices

One-Third of Cancer Deaths Could Be Avoided

This article was originally written by Rita Jenkins

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Of the seven million worldwide cancer deaths reported in 2001, 35 percent were attributable to nine well-known behavioral and environmental risk factors, according to an analysis published in The Lancet.
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and a network of collaborators made the calculation by estimating mortality for 12 types of cancer linked to the nine risk factors in seven World Bank regions for that year.
They also looked at how the risks, and the cancers they cause, were distributed over the regions of the world. This is the first assessment of the role of health risks in cancer deaths globally and regionally.
Risk Factor Analysis
The researchers analyzed data from the Comparative Risk Assessment project and World Health Organization databases to determine the level of risk factors in different world regions, and separately for men and women.
They also considered how hazardous each risk factor might be. The analysis covered all high-income countries together, and separated low-income and middle-income countries into geographical regions: East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
The nine risk factors:
– overweight and obesity
– low fruit and vegetable intake
– physical inactivity
– smoking
– alcohol use
– unsafe sex
– urban air pollution
– indoor smoke from household use of coal
– contaminated injections in healthcare settings
Alcohol, Smoking Play Large Roles
More than one in every three of the seven million deaths from cancer worldwide were caused by these nine potentially modifiable risk factors (2.43 million), the researchers found, with alcohol and smoking playing large roles in all income levels and regions.
Worldwide, the nine risk factors caused 1.6 million cancer deaths among men and 830,000 among women. Smoking alone is estimated to have caused 21 percent of deaths from cancer worldwide.
In high-income countries, these nine risks caused 760,000 cancer deaths. Smoking, alcohol, and overweight and obesity were the most important causes of cancer in these nations.
In low- and middle-income regions, the nine risks caused 1.67 million cancer deaths. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and low fruit and vegetable intake were the leading risk factors for these deaths.
Sexual transmission of human papillomavirus is the leading risk factor for cervical cancer in women in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where access to cervical screening is also limited.
Among low- and middle-income regions, Europe and Central Asia had the highest proportion of death from cancer from the nine risk factors studied; 39 percent of 825,000 cancer deaths in the low- and middle-income countries of Europe and Central Asia were caused by these risks.
The effects were even larger among men; one half of cancer deaths among men in the low- and middle-income countries of Europe and Central Asia were caused by these nine risks.
Behaviors and Environments
“These results clearly show that many globally important types of cancer are preventable by changes in lifestyle behaviors and environmental interventions,” comments Majid Ezzati, senior author of the study and assistant professor of international health at HSPH.
“To win the war against cancer, we must focus not just on advances in biomedical technologies, but also on technologies and policies that change the behaviors and environments that cause those cancers,” he adds.
The study, “Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioral and environmental risk factors,” was funded by the National Institute on Aging and by the Disease Control Priorities Project.
Copyright 2005 Daily News Central


Roofing Wicklow

ARW Outdoor Patio Furniture

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For the best Roofing Wicklow company, call Ace Roofing Wicklow.

Deciding what to buy: Cost, Quantity, and Location

outdoor patio furniture, patio furniture, patio chairs, patio tables, patio chaise lounge

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It s time again to spruce up the outdoors. When purchasing patio furniture there are several important factors to consider that will determine the type and the cost of patio furniture you choose.

First, it is important to consider the cost. There are so many options to choose from, ranging from very cost effective, to very high end furniture. An important option to consider is buying bulk. If you have a large outdoor patio, buying in bulk will ensure across the board coordination of your patio set. You will always have extra seating for entertaining, without having to pull out the old mismatch patio chairs that get packed away in a shed.

Second, determine the size of the area you plan to furnish. Are you just looking for a small patio set, or do you want to furnish all 3 decks and the pool side area? Ordering in bulk, you can have a variety of furniture that coordinates throughout your outdoor patio. Do you frequently entertain outdoors? If so, a large variety of outdoor patio furniture will ensure that your guests will be comfortable, and notice your beautiful outdoor space.

Lastly, consider your location. Some types of furniture, such as resin patio furniture, hold up better in sunny and windy conditions, such as the beach. Other types of furniture are more resilient to winterizing, such as melamine furniture, and if you live in colder climates, this will be important when the patio furniture gets put up for the season.

So, whatever your budget, size, or location, visit PatioStuff for some great ideas and styles in patio furniture.


QD Have You Left Your Bathroom Go Stale?

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The bathroom is often the most neglected room in any home – are you guilty of this too?

bathroom, diy, home, garden, house, decor, toilet

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The bathroom. We spend hours each day in there. We shower there. We shave there. We perform other bodily functions there. If you look at an average day we’re in the bathroom several times at least. For a room that we spend so much time in how much effort do we put into decorating it? Almost none. Normally the bathroom is the very last place in the home to have any money spent on it. This is despite the fact that it may have visible water damage, a leaky sink with squeaky taps and a bath that is well past it’s sell by date.

Most people will quite happily leave their bathroom in a state of disrepair until they hear that guests are arriving. Panic sets in! That grubby bathroom that you don’t care about may now become public knowledge. Friends and family may get to see how you “really” live. But why let your life progress to the point of utter panic – and always at the last moment. Why not spend a little money and a little time and get your bathroom in order today?

You can choose to make this a DIY Project if you have any skills in that area. If not then don’t take any chances by attempting the work yourself – hire a trained professional to complete your bathroom renovation for you. A word of warning though – make sure you educate yourself on the basic terminology and materials involved by reading a few home remodelling magazines or by asking friends who have completed similar redecorating projects themselves. You need to make sure the entire project is completed in as little time as possible – nothing worse than being stuck without a shower or toilet for days on end.

So where do you start? Well how about expanding the bathroom itself? Is there any square footage that’s not being used to its full extent? Can you knock through an existing wall and lengthen or widen your bathroom? This is the chief complaint of many home owners – that their bathroom is simply too small. Any extra space you can add to the room will benefit the entire house both in terms of usability and in overall value.

If you have a large and bulky cabinet in your bathroom then replace it with a smaller model – normally these cabinets are just filled with crap you never use. If there are any shelves dotted around the room remove these also – again they’re normally just used to hold old soap and shampoo that you “liberated” from that hotel room on holidays. The last step then is to make the most of your window space by replacing any old heavy curtains with small roller blinds – whatever style best suits your bathroom. Just maximize your window space by avoiding clutter.

Color is very important in any bathroom. 90% of bathrooms are decorated using “cold” colours such as blue and very pale creams. Most people use blues because most bathrooms tend to take on an aquatic feel of some kind. The problem is that overuse of blue as a base color can actually make a room “feel” cold. Why not experiment with warmer colors such as yellow, orange and terracotta? These can make even the dingiest bathroom feel very snug and cosy.

The important thing is to create the bathroom you’ve always wanted – with no pre-conceived notions. Let your imagination and creativity run wild and create a bathroom that is truly you!

Health Choices



Prostate is a glandular organ present only in males. It surrounds the neck of bladder & the first part of urethra and condributes a secretion to the semen. The gland is conical in shape and measures 3 cm in vertical diameter and 4 cm in transverse diameter.It has got five lobes anterior,posterior,two lateral and a median lobe.Since the first part of the urethra pass through it any lesion in the prostate will produce difficulty in passing urine.

Diseases of the prostate gland:-

1) Prostatitis:-

This is the inflamation of the prostate gland due to bacterial infection.

2) Benign enlargement of the prostate:-

This is a non cancerous tumour of the prostate seen after the age of 50. 3,Cancer of the prostate:-This is the 4th most common cause of death from malignant diseases in males.

Cancer of the prostate.

Cancer of the prostate is directly linked with the male sex hormones(androgens).If the levels of sex hormone increases the growth rate of cancer also increases.It is found that after the removel of testes there is marked reduction in the size of tumour.

Site of tumour:-

Prostate cancer is seen mainly in the posterior lobe.Non cancerous enlargement is seen in other lobes.

Changes in the gland in cancer:-

The gland becomes hard with irregular surface with loss of normal lobulation .Histologically prostate cancer is an adeno carcinoma(cancer of the epithelial cells in the gland)

Growth :-

Growth rate is very fast in prostate cancer .The tumour compresses the urethra and produce difficulty in urination.

Spread of tumour:-

Metastasis in cancer of prostate is very early.

1) Local spread:-

From the posterior lobe the cancer cells go to the lateral lobes and seminal vesicles.Tumour cells also move to the neck and base of the urinary bladder.

2) Lymphatic spread:-

Through the lymph vessels cancer cells reach the internal and external illiac group of lymph nodes.From there cells move to retroperitonial(Behind the peritonium) and mediastinal lymph nodes(in the chest)

3) Spread through the blood:-

Spread of cancer cells takeplace through the periprostatic venous plexus and reaches the vertebral veins while coughing and sneezing and finally enders the vertebral bodies of the lumbar vertebrae.

Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:–

Signs and symptoms depend upon the stage of the cancer. The following symptoms may be seen.

1) No symptoms:-

Tumour is small and only in the posterior lobe. This is diagnosed accidentely.

2) Slight difficulty in urination:-

Here the tumour is enlarged and urethra is slightly compressed.Shortly there will be frequent urge for urination with difficult urination.

3) When the tumour spread to all nearby areas including neck of bladder and urethra there will be painful urination with bleeding.Urine comes drop by drop.

4) Retention of urine:-

When the urethra is completely compressed there will be retention of urine.This can lead to hydronephrosis, renal failure ect.In this condition patient may get convulsions due to renal failure and finally coma.

5) Signs of metastasis:-

Some patients come with the signs and symptoms of metastasis.

a) Lumbo sacral pain due to spread of cancer cells to lumbar and sacral vertebrae.

b) Fracture of spine due to cancerous growth in the spine.

c) Swelling, pain and fluid collection in the abdomen due to lesion in the abdomen.

d) Respiratory complaints due to cancer of mediastinal lymphnodes and lungs.

e) General weakness due to spread of cancer to different parts of the body.

f) Anaemia due to involment of bone marrow and increased destruction of RBCs.

Clinical examination :-

Includes per rectal examination to feel the prostate gland,palpation of abdomen to feel the swelling in kidneys and any tumours.Patient is examined from head to foot to find out any lesions.


1) Complete blood investigations;-

RBC,WBC,Platlets,ESR,bleeding time ,clotting time ect.

2) Urine analysis:-

Microscopic examination to detect pus cells,occult blood,casts,Crystals ect.

3) Renal function tests:-

Blood urea level,serum creatinine level,electrolyte level ect.

4) Serum acid phosphatase:-

Increased in cancer of prostate.

5) x-ray of the spine:-

To detect any tumour or fracture.

6) Ultra sonography;-

Gives idea about prostate,bladder,kidney ect.

7) C T scan:-

More detailed information about organs and tumour.

8) MRI of the spine:-

Gives detailed information about spine ,disc and nearby soft tissues.

9) Lymphangiography:-

Gives idea about lymphatic spread of cancer.

10) Biopsy to confirm cancer:-

Biopsy is taken from the tumour and is send for histopathological examination under the microscope.This will detect the presence of cancer cells.


1) If there is retention of urine catheterisation is needed.
2) Dialysis if kidney failure.
3) If there is coma monitoring of all vital functions along with parentral nutrition and electolyte supply.
4) Specific treatment is prostatectomy(removal of prostate)

Partial prostatectomy :-

Here only the affected lobe is removed.

Radical prostatectomy :-

Total removal of prostate along with nearby lymphnodes.

5, Hormone therapy :-

Stilbestrol is given to reduce tumour growth.Since this treatement increases the chance for cardiovascular disease phosphorylated diethyle stilbesterol is used nowadays.

6) Chemotherapy:-Drugs like cyclophosphamide, cisoplatim ect are given.

7) Radiotherapy is also done for some cases.

8) Homoeopathy:-

Homoeopathic drugs like carcinocin, conium, sabal, crotalus, thuja, iodum, selinium, staphysagria, sulphur ect can be given according to symptoms.Constitutional homoeopathic medicine will give great relief and can increase the life span.

9) Yoga and meditation is also healpful.

Roofing And Guttering Kildare

ARK Symptoms of Black Mold Learn What To Look For

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Black mold isn t nice stuff to have around. How do you know you ve got it?

symptoms of black mold, black mold symptoms, toxic mold symptoms

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Symptoms of black mold in your home can manifest themselves in many different ways. You do need to know what these symptoms are so you can be cognizant of anything occurring in your home that could lead to a build up of black mold. This form of mold is very toxic and can cause mild allergies as well as serious medical conditions. When you know what the symptoms of black mold are, then you know what to look for.

You can be on the lookout for symptoms of black mold if there is a high level of humidity in your home. If the humidity is higher than 55%, then this is the prime condition for the development of black mold symptoms. The thing that you need to be most aware of is that you may not even realize that there is black or toxic mold in your home until someone starts to get sick. Even then the symptoms may be so much like a sinus infection or asthma, that you might not associate them with toxic mold symptoms.

Since the basement is the place where most of the water pipes in a home are located, the condensation on these pipes often goes undetected for long periods of time. In fact you may never realize that there are symptoms of black mold present if you don t have a problem with the pipes. When leaks are discovered, many homeowners concentrate on fixing the leaks and don t realize they are toxic mold symptoms and therefore do nothing about the black mold itself.

Odors or musty smells are often the first symptoms of black mold. This is because black mold grows in places that are not usually visible or in places that you can t get to for cleaning, such as in cracks and crevices. Getting an odor does not necessarily mean you have toxic mold in your home, but it is definitely one of the symptoms that can alert you to the need for black mold testing. If the odors are present when the air-conditioning system is running, then these are serious toxic mold symptoms.

Yellowish stains on the walls are also symptoms of black mold. Black mold has a greenish color to it and when you notice the wall starting to stain underneath the wallpaper or coming through the paint, this is a symptom that you do have a serious mold problem. Toxic mold symptoms can also manifest themselves as the paint coming off the walls because of the excess moisture. One way you can find out if you do have black mold in the walls is to shine a black light on it. If you see a yellow glow, this is one of the symptoms of black mold in the wall.

Roofing Wicklow

ARW Outdoor living spaces extend your livable space and delight the senses.

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What started out as a yard in the great American dream has evolved into an outdoor living space, encompassing dining areas, retreat spaces and living rooms. These spaces extend the livable area of your home, while saving you money and increasing the value of your home. Here are some ideas to get you started.

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What started out as a yard in the great American dream has evolved into an outdoor living space, encompassing dining areas, living rooms and even play areas that go way beyond the swingsets of the 1950 s. These spaces extend the livable area of your home, while saving you money and increasing your home s value. This is particularly true in the Southwest, where bug-free, temperate outdoor conditions predominate for much of the year. In fact, a little further south, Latin American homes often blur the distinction between indoor and outdoor spaces a bedroom might open to the garden or the dining room might call for outdoor eating all year round.

To take advantage of the wisdom of outdoor spaces, it s important to remember that you ll be more likely to use them if they re close to the entrances of your home. One exception to that rule, however, are retreat spaces sanctuaries you ll want to remove from the house to create a sense of privacy and solace.

One of the most popular outdoor spaces is the outdoor dining room/kitchen. Plans for outdoor dining rooms can range from the basic to the outrageous, depending on your inclination and budget. Merely placing tables and chairs to take advantage of (or avoid) the sun, with a barbeque set up nearby, may be all you need. Even so, consider accents to dress up the space, like container gardens and solar-powered lights.

If you want to go for broke, install an entire outdoor kitchen with weatherproof cabinets and outdoor-ready ARWpliances. Often the cabinets and ARWpliances form the walls or boundaries of the space which you can then dress up with Spanish tile and a dining set. Use a pergola to provide shade and some cover.

Another popular option is the outdoor living room. Some families create not one, but two outdoor living spaces, one on the east side of the house and one on the west side. When it s hot out, they always have a shady respite, and during cooler weather they can soak up the sun s rays all day long. Planting greenery around these areas will help defray cooling costs in the summer and provide privacy and protection from the wind. Consider making these spaces more cozy with weatherproof fabrics, rattan furniture and pillow-drARWed seat walls. And to add interest, build your outdoor living room around a focal point such as a view, water feature or even a fireplace.

There are many reasons to consider creating outdoor living spaces. They not only raise your property value, but can be a place to entertain or simply an easy way to enjoy the great outdoors without having to leave your home.

jet washing wexford

STCS Water Fountain Options

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Explores the various types of water fountains to allow you to choose the one most fit for your home.

home decor, water fountains, indoor style, home beauty

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Water fountains, like many of the items we as consumers shop for need to be selected with careful consideration for where they will be placed and how. If such things are overlooked, you risk ruining the particular look in the room in which they will be placed. Since we realize that most of you are dealing with different spaces and budgets, we thought we d elaborate on the various types of indoor water fountains available to give you a better idea of what is most suitable for your home.

On the lower end of the size spectrum are tabletop water fountains. These fountains rest atop a table and run just as any other water fountain does. Like other fountains, these fountains utilize unique materials, including very stones and ceramics. Tabletop fountains have numerous benefits over bigger and bulkier fountains. For one, they can be easily transported to any room in your home without much of a hassle. Further, they make much less noise than bigger fountains and can thus produce a more relaxing atmosphere.

Wall mounted water fountains are another lucrative option that homeowners have. As you could derive from their name, these fountains are hung upon a wall and run as all other fountains do. What s great about wall mounted units is the fact that they waste little space. However, they can t be moved around as easily as other types of fountains can.

Outdoor water fountains are meant for the outsides of your home and can have a major aesthetic impact when combined with a beautiful landscape. It s quite difficult to imagine anything more relaxing than retreating to your backyard while listening to the soothing sound of water tricking down a surface. Outdoor water fountains are not only helpful in terms of relaxation, but they can also act as a great conversation piece whenever you may be entertaining guests.

Water fountains can make a great addition to any home. Take your time as you shop for a fountain as this will ensure you water fountain experience is nothing short of spectacular.

Davitt Patios Wicklow

Marble Mosaic Art

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For the best Patios Wicklow company, call Davitt Driveways.

There are certain parameters to adjudicate the quality and worth of a thing. For instance a good human being should be a moral and an ethical individual, a good book must be informative, comprehensible and written with a profound thought etc.

marble,Mosaic Art

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There are certain parameters to adjudicate the quality and worth of a thing. For instance a good human being should be a moral and an ethical individual, a good book must be informative, comprehensible and written with a profound thought etc. Similarly the merit of any building, house or workplace is assessed by its aesthetic value and quality of material used in making it.

Besides applying vibrant paints in different color combinations, marble floorings and tiles etc. now something more and exclusive can be done to enhance the aesthetic significance of an edifice. This is the installation of Mosaic Art. Mosaic art involves intermixing differently colored pieces of stones, glass etc. to form various pictures and patterns.

Mosaic is quite an ancient art. It started about 4000 years ago. During 4th and 3rd century BC, Mesopotamians had developed mosaic with thin cones of baked clay that were painted differently at the ends. Similarly Greeks decorated their floors with the help of pebble made mosaics and Macedonians used polychrome pebble mosaics to embellish their structures. But the variation was not confined to mosaic ingredients only for the images so created also differed with different civilizations. For instance early Christian mosaics of 4th and 6th century BC mainly represented hunting scenes, birds and animals. While 7th century Islamic mosaics were mostly floral pictures and scenes. However with the passage of time mosaic art has encountered many changes and has greatly been refined, though the technique is still the same.

Phoenician Arts, a third generation company with a distinguished name in mosaic art industry, has given a new dimension to this art. Phoenician Arts has gifted the world absolutely novel hand-made marble mosaic designs carved out of natural marble and semi-precious stones. It has also revived and reproduced the traditional elite mosaics of the Greeks, Romans and Byzantinians. The mosaics by Phoenician Arts are wonderful paradigms of the primitive and contemporary existence. This is the reason that the mosaic work has successfully replaced the other art forms that exist today. At present mosaics are the most prized and coveted means to augment the aesthetic value of a place or structure.

Since Phoenician Arts develops mosaics for various themes such as medallions, animals, figures & scenes, kitchen related, religious, geometric etc., these are largely and conveniently used to adorn indoors as well as outdoors. Within a house or workplace mosaics can be installed in hallways, dining areas, floor center of living rooms, above the fire place, in an archway and the like. Whereas in case of outdoors mosaics can beautify tabletops, pools, garden areas, entrance of buildings and houses.

The popularity of the Phoenician mosaics is at a surge not only because of their mesmerizing appearance but also due to the advantages they have over other means to decorate houses and places. For instance in comparison to paintings and photographs, these mosaics are more appealing and authentic. Phoenician mosaics are heat and water resistant and so can be installed at places like bathtubs, pools, outer surface and floors of a building. Also these mosaics are easy to clean with least chances of wear and tear. Moreover Phoenician Arts offers the opportunity to customize the mosaics according to the need (budget, ambience of the house, colors, sizes, etc.) of the customer.

Health Choices

Metabolic Breakdown: Why Some Drugs Might Not Work On You



Some medications work for some people, but they won’t for others. This is accepted as medical fact and is influenced by a number of things, such as dosage, age, and the person’s unique drug metabolism. Drug metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down the drugs that go into your system into chemical components, which can either aid or hinder the drug’s actual purpose.

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Have you ever wondered why, sometimes, even the seemingly most effective drugs aren’t doing too well in alleviating your symptoms? Well, the human body is capable of a great many things, including traits such as drug tolerance. The body getting used to a specific drug could be seen as the cause of medication suddenly becoming ineffective. But what about medication that you’ve never used? Another cause might be that the drug you’re using undergoes drug metabolism.

Drug metabolism is the process by which an external drug is altered by the body chemically. Typically, this process occurs when the medication reaches the liver, though not necessarily. The enzymes in the liver break the drug down to its basic chemical components, or as close as the body can get to them. The drug metabolism process can often make the drug ineffective for a variety of reasons. The breaking down of the drug into separate chemical components can render some medications ineffective, because it relies on the interaction of the compounds as a single unit to have an effect.

However, not all medications are rendered useless by drug metabolism. The pharmaceutical industry has several medications that are designed to take effect once metabolized, effectively using the body’s natural functions to bolster the drug’s effect. In cases of medications such as this, the components are designed and selected to function once freed from other compounds in the formula. These extra compounds, known as metabolites, can either be further metabolized by the body or excreted appropriately. It should be noted, though, that even these medications may not always function properly.

Genetics are a major factor in the interactions between the drug metabolism of the body and the medications that people put in. Some people are simply genetically programmed to have faster or stronger drug metabolism systems in their livers, which can render even the best-designed medications absolutely useless. Others have such weak metabolisms that drugs designed to be released after being metabolized are never fully broken down, resulting in everything being excreted by the body rather than being absorbed. In such cases, doctors might choose to recommend a drug that is known to have similar effects but reacts differently to the body’s metabolism. For example, if you’ve got a faster metabolism, he may decide to give you medication that is harder to break down.

Age can also play a role in whether or not the body properly metabolizes any medications put into it. The enzymes that do this task are not fully developed at birth. The human body acquires the needed enzymes as it ages, so newborns and children might not be able to fully metabolize some medications. This is part of the reason for several types of drugs, such as cough and headache medication, have variant formulas specifically for children and adults.

The metabolic rate can also be considered in determining the dose that should be administered. Since children have smaller bodies and slower metabolisms, smaller doses are required to avoid an overdose. In contrast, adult bodies can handle larger doses and more potent concentrations. However, past a certain age, the metabolism begins to slow down and the need to use smaller doses returns.